16 feb. 2017

Library Services Platforms: A Mature Genre of Products

The genre of library services platforms helps libraries manage their collection materials and automate many aspects of their operations by addressing a wider range of resources and taking advantage of current technology architectures compared to the integrated library systems that have previously dominated. This issue of Library Technology Reports explores this new category of library software, including its functional and technical characteristics. It highlights the differences with integrated library systems, which remain viable for many libraries and continue to see development along their own trajectory. This report provides an up-to-date assessment of these products, including those that have well-established track records as well as those that remain under development. The relationship between library services platforms and discovery services is addressed. The report does not provide detailed listings of features of each product, but gives a general overview of the high-level organization of functionality, the adoption patterns relative to size, types, and numbers of libraries that have implemented them, and how these libraries perceive their performance. This seminal category of library technology products has gained momentum in recent years and is positioned to reshape how libraries acquire, manage, and provide access to their collections as they go forward into the next decade.

Breeding, M.  [e-Book] Library Services Platforms: A Mature Genre of Products. Library Technology Reports. vol. 51, 4. Chicago, ALA, 2015.

5 dic. 2016


Illustration of BIBFRAME 2.0 model,
with three core levels of abstraction
(in blue)—Work, Instance, Item—
and three related classes
(in orange)—Agent,
Subject, Event.

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community. The MARC Standards, which BIBFRAME seeks to replace, were developed by Henriette Avram at the US Library of Congress during the 1960s. By 1971, MARC formats had become the national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data in the United States, and the international standard by 1973. In a provocatively titled 2002 article, library technologist Roy Tennant argued that "MARC Must Die", noting that the standard was old; used only within the library community; and designed to be a display, rather than a storage or retrieval format A 2008 report from the Library of Congress wrote that MARC is "based on forty-year old techniques for data management and is out of step with programming styles of today." In 2012, the Library of Congress announced that it had contracted with Zepheira, a data management company, to develop a linked data alternative to MARC. Later that year, the library announced a new model called MARC Resources (MARCR). That November, the library released a more complete draft of the model, renamed BIBFRAME. (The Library of Congress released version 2.0 of BIBFRAME in 2016)
BIBFRAME is expressed in RDF and based on three categories of abstraction (work, instance, item). , with three additional classes (agent, subject, event) that relate to the core categories. 
Work.  The highest level of abstraction, a Work, in the BIBFRAME context, reflects the conceptual essence of the cataloged resource:  authors, languages, and what it is about (subjects). 
Instance.  A Work may have one or more individual, material embodiments, for example, a particular published form. These are Instances of the Work.  An Instance reflects information such as its publisher, place and date of publication, and format.
Item  An item is an actual copy (physical or electronic) of an Instance. It reflects information such as its location (physical or virtual), shelf mark, and barcode.
BIBFRAME 2.0 further defines additional key concepts that have relationships to the core classes:
Agents:  Agents are people, organizations, jurisdictions, etc., associated with a Work or Instance through roles such as author, editor, artist, photographer, composer, illustrator, etc.
Subjects:  A Work might be “about” one or more concepts. Such a concept is said to be a “subject” of the Work. Concepts that may be subjects include topics, places, temporal expressions, events, works, instances, items, agents, etc.
Events:  Occurrences, the recording of which may be the content of a Work.
The BIBFRAME vocabulary consists of RDF classes and properties.  Classes include the three core classes listed above as well as various additional classes, many of which are subclasses of the core classes.  Properties describe characteristics of the resource being described as well as relationships among resources. For example: one Work might be a “translation of” another Work; an Instance may be an “instance of” a particular BIBFRAME Work.  Other properties describe attributes of Works and Instances.  For example: the BIBFRAME property “subject” expresses an important attribute of a Work (what the Work is about), and the property “extent” (e.g. number) expresses an attribute of an Instance.
While the work entity in BIBFRAME is roughly analogous to the work entity in the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model, BIBFRAME's instance entity is a conflation of the FRBR expressionand manifestation entities. This represents an apparent break with FRBR and the FRBR-based Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging code. However, the original BIBFRAME model argues that the new model "can reflect the FRBR relationships in terms of a graph rather than as hierarchical relationships, after applying a reductionist technique." Since both FRBR and BIBFRAME have been expressed in RDF, interoperability between the two models is technically posible.
Specific formats.
While the BIBFRAME model currently includes a serial entity, there are still a number of issues to be addressed before the model can be used for serials cataloging. BIBFRAME lacks several serials-related data fields available in MARC. A 2014 report was very positive on BIBFRAME's suitability for describing audio and video resources. However, the report also expressed some concern about the high-level Work entity, which is unsuitable for modeling certain audio resources
·         Colorado College's Tutt Library has created several experimental apps using BIBFRAME.
·         14 other research libraries are testing the new model
Related initiative:
·          *  FRBRFRBRooFRAD, and FRSAD have been made available in RDF form by Gordon Dunsire in the Open Metadata Registry.
·     * Schema Bib Extend project, a W3C-sponsored community group has worked to extend Schema.org to make it suitable for bibliographic description

29 nov. 2016

Retos y alternativas para la preservación a largo plazo de información digital en bibliotecas

El presente trabajo describe los problemas fundamentales a los que se enfrentan las bibliotecas en cuanto a la preservación a largo plazo de la información digital, dejando en evidencia la necesidad de tomar acciones para proteger el patrimonio digital de las amenazas a las que está expuesto. 
Se realiza una síntesis de las soluciones tecnológicas más importantes, las cuales constituyen puntos de referencia en cuanto a lo que se está realizando en el campo de los sistemas de preservación digital. Se valora de forma general el estado actual de la preservación digital a largo plazo en bibliotecas y las alternativas de software más importantes. 
Retos y alternativas para la preservación a largo plazo de información digital en bibliotecas
Desde sus orígenes 4000 o 5000 años atrás, las bibliotecas han tenido un rol fundamental en la sociedad. Desde un inicio marcado por el énfasis en coleccionar, organizar y preservar documentos contables y administrativos en los antiguos territorios mesopotámicos, hasta convertirse en un instrumento auxiliar de la enseñanza y la investigación (Linares, 2004). Las bibliotecas pasaron de ser meros depósitos de documentos a organizaciones que facilitan la gestión de la información y el conocimiento. Preservar la información y el conocimiento a través del tiempo y el espacio, ha sido una preocupación en mayor o menor medida de acuerdo a la época y el contexto. La escritura como modo de representar la información más comúnmente usado, ha adoptado diversos soportes desde la antigüedad hasta la época actual, teniéndose tabletas de arcilla, papiro, pergamino, papel y con mayor proporción hoy, documentos digitales. El papel ha sido el soporte físico de los fondos y servicios de una biblioteca tradicional. De esta variante en papel compuesta por libros, revistas, catálogos, boletines informativos, etc., ha evolucionado en pocos años hacia la biblioteca electró- nica, en la que los fondos tienen presencia física de los documentos, pero los servicios se automatizan paulatinamente. En un espacio de tiempo aún más corto, asistimos a una nueva realidad; las bibliotecas usan ya la tecnología disponible y los servicios en red, por lo que, no sólo los servicios, sino la misma información se crea, se procesa y se difunde en forma electrónica, a través de las redes de transmisión de datos (Pérez, Lara, & Naranjo, 2004). El desarrollo y uso masivo de los medios y tecnologías digitales de procesamiento, transmisión y almacenamiento han traído consigo la disponibilidad de una considerable cantidad de información, debido a una mayor eficacia en los procesos de creación, organización y difusión de la información. En el entorno digital, donde la información se registra, almacena y difunde de forma diferente a lo tradicional, el acceso y la preservación plantean nuevos retos para las bibliotecas. A pesar de las ventajas que ofrece el entorno digital, a la vez impone serias amenazas en cuanto a la preservación de documentos digitales a largo plazo. No solo están presentes las amenazas asociadas a la degradación de los medios de almacenamiento digitales como el CD-ROM o discos duros, el borrado accidental de la información por parte de usuarios y operadores, o accesos no autorizados con el fin de borrar o alterar la información; también hay que tener en cuenta el ciclo cada vez más rápido de obsolescencia de los equipos de informática (hardware), del software y de los formatos.

Tomado de: Castro, E. C. "Retos y alternativas para la preservación a largo plazo de información digital en bibliotecas." Bibliotecas. Anales de Investigación vol. 0, n. 10 (2015). pp. 191-196.