1 mar. 2017

Los servicios bibliotecarios en la web: retos y oportunidades



El uso cada vez mayor de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, especialmente Internet, ha supuesto profundas transformaciones en muchos ámbitos de la vida que afectan no sólo la forma en que se comunican y relacionan las personas y las instituciones, sino también los hábitos de consumo y de ocio, el trabajo o las posibilidades de acceso a los servicios públicos. La comodidad y rapidez que ofrece Internet han sido determinantes para condicionar las preferencias de una gran parte de la población, que opta por el medio digital en vez del presencial a la hora de realizar muchas acciones de su vida cotidiana -pensemos, por ejemplo, en la compra de un boleto de avión, en una transferencia bancaria o en la consulta de la cartelera del cine-. Si bien es cierto que este medio no ha suplantado por completo al analógico, cada vez son más las empresas e instituciones que utilizan Internet como plataforma para darse a conocer y ofrecer sus productos y servicios, ya que en un mundo globalizado e inmerso en la sociedad de la información, donde millones de personas están conectadas y hacen un uso masivo de Internet, la Web se ha convertido en el mejor y más amplio escaparate para llegar a muchos sectores de la población y conseguir que se conviertan en usuarios o clientes. Tanto es así que la oferta de productos y servicios en la Web ha crecido exponencialmente en los últimos años y ha derivado en una gran competencia entre proveedores, que los obliga a mejorar continuamente las prestaciones y funcionalidades que ofrecen en sus sitios web y a adaptarse a los gustos y preferencias de la población a la que se dirigen. Las bibliotecas no han sido una excepción a este fenómeno y desde muy temprano se han preocupado de tener presencia en la Web: en un primer momento, ofreciendo información sobre la propia biblioteca y los servicios que ofrece; posteriormente, permitiendo la consulta de sus catálogos y de sus fondos en soporte digital, teniendo en cuenta las posibles restricciones en el acceso a ciertos materiales; y en los últimos tiempos, ofreciendo otros servicios a través de su página web, como la referencia virtual, la renovación de préstamos o la formación de usuarios. Aunque este desarrollo no se ha producido de forma homogénea, debido a las circunstancias particulares de cada biblioteca, así como a sus recursos económicos y tecnológicos, sí se aprecia una marcada tendencia en este sentido y un esfuerzo cada vez mayor por sacar el máximo partido de las posibilidades que ofrece el medio digital. Sin embargo, como mencionábamos, la competencia en Internet es cada vez mayor y el papel hegemónico de las bibliotecas como proveedoras de información se ha ido diluyendo a medida que los soportes digitales y los nuevos sistemas de búsqueda de información se consolidaban. Hoy en día ya no es necesario acudir a una biblioteca para buscar información sobre un tema o un autor, puesto que a través de un buscador tenemos acceso a millones de documentos de forma rápida y sencilla. Entonces, ¿qué es lo que pueden ofrecer las bibliotecas para competir en el entorno digital? Posiblemente una de las respuestas más evidentes estaría relacionada con el acceso a sus colecciones, ya que muchos de los recursos de información que pueden consultarse desde las bibliotecas no son accesibles por otros medios o, al menos, no de forma gratuita, y además han pasado por un riguroso proceso de selección que ofrece garantías sobre su calidad. No obstante, y aunque es cierto que disponer de una buena colección de materiales es importante, es necesario algo más, que tiene que ver con los servicios que se ofrecen y su capacidad para ajustarse a las necesidades y preferencias de los usuarios.



Tomado de: Andrés Fernández Ramos: Investig. bibl vol.30 no.69 México may./ago. 2016

16 feb. 2017

Library Services Platforms: A Mature Genre of Products



The genre of library services platforms helps libraries manage their collection materials and automate many aspects of their operations by addressing a wider range of resources and taking advantage of current technology architectures compared to the integrated library systems that have previously dominated. This issue of Library Technology Reports explores this new category of library software, including its functional and technical characteristics. It highlights the differences with integrated library systems, which remain viable for many libraries and continue to see development along their own trajectory. This report provides an up-to-date assessment of these products, including those that have well-established track records as well as those that remain under development. The relationship between library services platforms and discovery services is addressed. The report does not provide detailed listings of features of each product, but gives a general overview of the high-level organization of functionality, the adoption patterns relative to size, types, and numbers of libraries that have implemented them, and how these libraries perceive their performance. This seminal category of library technology products has gained momentum in recent years and is positioned to reshape how libraries acquire, manage, and provide access to their collections as they go forward into the next decade.


Breeding, M.  [e-Book] Library Services Platforms: A Mature Genre of Products. Library Technology Reports. vol. 51, 4. Chicago, ALA, 2015.

5 dic. 2016

BIBFRAME

Illustration of BIBFRAME 2.0 model,
with three core levels of abstraction
(in blue)—Work, Instance, Item—
and three related classes
(in orange)—Agent,
Subject, Event.

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community. The MARC Standards, which BIBFRAME seeks to replace, were developed by Henriette Avram at the US Library of Congress during the 1960s. By 1971, MARC formats had become the national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data in the United States, and the international standard by 1973. In a provocatively titled 2002 article, library technologist Roy Tennant argued that "MARC Must Die", noting that the standard was old; used only within the library community; and designed to be a display, rather than a storage or retrieval format A 2008 report from the Library of Congress wrote that MARC is "based on forty-year old techniques for data management and is out of step with programming styles of today." In 2012, the Library of Congress announced that it had contracted with Zepheira, a data management company, to develop a linked data alternative to MARC. Later that year, the library announced a new model called MARC Resources (MARCR). That November, the library released a more complete draft of the model, renamed BIBFRAME. (The Library of Congress released version 2.0 of BIBFRAME in 2016)
BIBFRAME is expressed in RDF and based on three categories of abstraction (work, instance, item). , with three additional classes (agent, subject, event) that relate to the core categories. 
Work.  The highest level of abstraction, a Work, in the BIBFRAME context, reflects the conceptual essence of the cataloged resource:  authors, languages, and what it is about (subjects). 
Instance.  A Work may have one or more individual, material embodiments, for example, a particular published form. These are Instances of the Work.  An Instance reflects information such as its publisher, place and date of publication, and format.
Item  An item is an actual copy (physical or electronic) of an Instance. It reflects information such as its location (physical or virtual), shelf mark, and barcode.
BIBFRAME 2.0 further defines additional key concepts that have relationships to the core classes:
Agents:  Agents are people, organizations, jurisdictions, etc., associated with a Work or Instance through roles such as author, editor, artist, photographer, composer, illustrator, etc.
Subjects:  A Work might be “about” one or more concepts. Such a concept is said to be a “subject” of the Work. Concepts that may be subjects include topics, places, temporal expressions, events, works, instances, items, agents, etc.
Events:  Occurrences, the recording of which may be the content of a Work.
The BIBFRAME vocabulary consists of RDF classes and properties.  Classes include the three core classes listed above as well as various additional classes, many of which are subclasses of the core classes.  Properties describe characteristics of the resource being described as well as relationships among resources. For example: one Work might be a “translation of” another Work; an Instance may be an “instance of” a particular BIBFRAME Work.  Other properties describe attributes of Works and Instances.  For example: the BIBFRAME property “subject” expresses an important attribute of a Work (what the Work is about), and the property “extent” (e.g. number) expresses an attribute of an Instance.
While the work entity in BIBFRAME is roughly analogous to the work entity in the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model, BIBFRAME's instance entity is a conflation of the FRBR expressionand manifestation entities. This represents an apparent break with FRBR and the FRBR-based Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging code. However, the original BIBFRAME model argues that the new model "can reflect the FRBR relationships in terms of a graph rather than as hierarchical relationships, after applying a reductionist technique." Since both FRBR and BIBFRAME have been expressed in RDF, interoperability between the two models is technically posible.
Specific formats.
While the BIBFRAME model currently includes a serial entity, there are still a number of issues to be addressed before the model can be used for serials cataloging. BIBFRAME lacks several serials-related data fields available in MARC. A 2014 report was very positive on BIBFRAME's suitability for describing audio and video resources. However, the report also expressed some concern about the high-level Work entity, which is unsuitable for modeling certain audio resources
Implementation:
·         Colorado College's Tutt Library has created several experimental apps using BIBFRAME.
·         14 other research libraries are testing the new model
Related initiative:
·          *  FRBRFRBRooFRAD, and FRSAD have been made available in RDF form by Gordon Dunsire in the Open Metadata Registry.
·     * Schema Bib Extend project, a W3C-sponsored community group has worked to extend Schema.org to make it suitable for bibliographic description
      
      References: